Since ancient times people were chewing something: the ancient Greeks - the resin of the mastic tree, the Mayan - rubber, Siberian - larch resin, while in India - a mixture of aromatic leaves. All these "chewing gums" were giving to breathing the aroma and freshness, cleaned the teeth, massaged the gums, and just leaving a pleasant taste in the mouth. After the discovery of America in Europe there was chewing tobacco, which was very widespread.
June 5, 1869 dentist from Ohio patented his recipe for chewing gum. And in 1871, Thomas Adams received a patent for the invention of the machine for the production of chewing gum. It is at its factory in 17 years will be released the famous "Tutti-Frutti" - chewing gum, which conquered the USA.
Since then, the chewing gum has undergone many metamorphoses: it changed color and taste, produced in the form of pellets, cubes, butterflies, etc., and took a very important place in the lives of young people of the second half of the XX century, and today is still very popular.
Facts about chewing gum
Chewing gum helps to lose weight. American scientists have found that the weight loss process is facilitated by the use of chewing gum - it speeds up the metabolism by as much as 19%. Also, chewing gum helps to reduce the appetite - chewing stimulates nerves that transmit a signal to the brain region responsible for satiety.
Chewing gum affects memory. The effect of chewing gum on the memory is under active debate. For example, psychologists from England found that chewing gum impairs short-term memory, which is necessary for the momentary orientation. A person can quickly forget the price of goods, which had just held in his hand, or lose the keys to the apartment. According to scientists, it is detrimental to any monotonic unconscious movement, that is, the person becomes more diffuse. But scientists from Newcastle University (USA) believe that when chewing increases the activity responsible for the memory of the brain, it increases insulin secretion and heart rate, which means that people comprehend much better. The same conclusion was reached by Japanese researchers.
Chewing gum is useful. During chewing salivation is enhanced, which helps to cleanse the teeth, massage gums, which to some extent can be considered as the prevention of periodontal disease.
Chewing gum can be chewed not more than 5 minutes and just after the meal. These are the recommendations of experts. If you chew gum for longer, it will lead to the isolation of an empty stomach gastric juice, which promotes the development of stomach ulcers and gastritis.
Chewing gum does not replace brushing. Dentists believe that it is impossible to replace a full cleaning of the teeth by chewing a gum. And even if there is no toothbrush at hand, then rinse your mouth with water.
Chewing gum does not protect from tooth decay. Caries appear not on the chewing surfaces, but on interdental, so there is no use of chewing gum to prevent from this disease.
Chewing gum is bad for teeth. It destroys fillings, crowns and bridges. Destruction brings a mechanical effect on the teeth, and chemical - saliva, which is formed in the process of chewing, promotes the formation of alkali, corrosive seal.
Chewing gum helps to recover faster after surgery on the colon. This is due to the activation of hormones digestive system during chewing. For example, in the UK in the treatment of patients after surgery on the gut, it is recommend to chew gum for 30 minutes in the morning, afternoon and evening. This helps patients rapidly return to normal food intake and reduces post-operative period. Such action can be explained by the fact that chewing reflex stimulates secretory and motor activity of the intestine.
Gum causes soothing effect. And also it is a good remedy from stress, as it improves concentration.
Chewing gum does not help to get rid of bad breath. It has such a short-term effect that in general it can be called useless.
Chewing gum contains a dangerous substance. Aspartame is a sweetener, the substance was invented in 1965 and is still causing suspicion among physicians. The fact that the decomposition of aspartame in the body form two amino acids - asparagine and phenylalanine, as well as very dangerous alcohol - methanol. In certain concentrations, methanol is dangerous for pregnant women and affects the normal development of the fetus. Additionally, methanol is converted into formaldehyde is carcinogenic.
Chewing gum can not be given to children and pregnant women. American neurologist John Olney proved the danger of glutamate - an amino acid and food additive to enhance the flavor. He discovered the phenomenon of excitotoxicity: the death of nerve cells due to their overstimulation caused by glutamate and aspartame. According to scientists, these substances represent a great danger to the development of brain, and therefore during pregnancy and then up to the youth. Periods when a person should avoid chewing a gum is the last 3 months of pregnancy and the first 4 years of life.
Chewing gum has always existed! Archaeologists have found prehistoric resin pieces with prints of human teeth in Northern Europe, which dates back to VII-II millennium BC. The ancient Greeks chewed mastic Indians - resin conifers, Mayan tribes - chicle.
What can replace chewing gum?
Coffee beans. You can freshen your breath, not with a chewing gum, but with coffee. It is necessary to chew a few grains, it will remove all the unpleasant odors, such as garlic or alcohol. The fact is that coffee beans contain substances that kill bacteria - the cause of unpleasant odors. In addition, small amounts of coffee is useful as it invigorates and improves memory.
Mint and parsley leaves. Chewing gum is often used to make stomach "silent" if it requires food. In fact, it is quite harmful activity, since the use of chewing gum on an empty stomach can lead to gastritis or aggravate existing stomach disease. To silence the hunger and, by the way, freshen breath, you can chew mint leaf or a sprig of parsley. These herbs are rich in essential oils and vitamins, they do not bring harm, and will blunt the appetite.
Chewing marmalade. Sweet and healthy replacement of chewing gum is chewing marmalade. It’s easy to make yourself, and if you use molds or cut the figures out of it, then such jam can distract the child from chewing gums in bright wrappers. For the preparation of chewing marmalade you will need fruits (apples, pears), sugar, water, vegetable or olive oil. It is necessary to clean the fruits, to turn them into a puree and cook with sugar and water. When the mass has cooled down and caramelized, lubricate the wooden board with vegetable oil and place it on the fruit puree, cover it with gauze. In summer this mass can be put wherever the sunlight falls. After some time, cut it on the plate.
Chewing gum has a long and interesting history. Although, this product seems ordinary and familiar to us, it is really original and considered to be one of the most unusual discoveries in the world.